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Nanoplots are tiny plots you can use in your gt table. They are simple by design, mainly because there isn't a lot of space to work with. With that simplicity, however, you do get a set of very succinct data visualizations that adapt nicely to the amount of data you feed into them. With cols_nanoplot() you take data from one or more columns as the basic inputs for the nanoplots and generate a new column containing the plots. The nanoplots are robust against missing values, and multiple strategies are available for handling missingness.

Nanoplots try to show individual data with reasonably good visibility. Interactivity is included as a basic feature so one can hover over the data points and vertical guides will display the value ascribed to each data point. Because gt knows all about numeric formatting, values will be compactly formatted so as to not take up valuable real estate. If you need to create a nanoplot based on monetary values, that can be handled by providing the currency code to the nanoplot_options() helper (then hook that up to the options argument). A guide on the left-hand side of the plot area will appear on hover and display the minimal and maximal y values.

There are three types of nanoplots available: "line", "bar", "boxplot". A line plot shows individual data points and has smooth connecting lines between them to allow for easier scanning of values. You can opt for straight-line connections between data points, or, no connections at all (it's up to you). You can even eschew the data points and just have a simple line. Regardless of how you mix and match difference plot layers, the plot area focuses on the domain of the data points with the goal of showing you the overall trend of the data. The data you feed into a line plot can consist of a single vector of values (resulting in equally-spaced y values), or, you can supply two vectors representative of x and y.

A bar plot is built a little bit differently. The focus is on evenly-spaced bars (requiring a single vector of values) that project from a zero line, clearly showing the difference between positive and negative values. By default, any type of nanoplot will have basic interactivity. One can hover over the data points and vertical guides will display values ascribed to each. A guide on the left-hand side of the plot area will display the minimal and maximal y values on hover.

Every box plot will take the collection of values for a row and construct the plot horizontally. This is essentially a standard box-and-whisker diagram where outliers are automatically displayed outside the left and right fences.

While basic customization options are present in the cols_nanoplot(), many more opportunities for customizing nanoplots on a more granular level are possible with the nanoplot_options() helper function. That function should be invoked at the options argument of cols_nanoplot(). Through that helper, layers of the nanoplots can be selectively removed and the aesthetics of the remaining plot components can be modified.

Usage

cols_nanoplot(
  data,
  columns,
  rows = everything(),
  plot_type = c("line", "bar", "boxplot"),
  plot_height = "2em",
  missing_vals = c("gap", "marker", "zero", "remove"),
  autoscale = FALSE,
  autohide = TRUE,
  columns_x_vals = NULL,
  reference_line = NULL,
  reference_area = NULL,
  expand_x = NULL,
  expand_y = NULL,
  new_col_name = NULL,
  new_col_label = NULL,
  before = NULL,
  after = NULL,
  options = NULL
)

Arguments

data

The gt table data object

obj:<gt_tbl> // required

This is the gt table object that is commonly created through use of the gt() function.

columns

Columns from which to get data for the dependent variable

<column-targeting expression> // required

The columns which contain the numeric data to be plotted as nanoplots. Can either be a series of column names provided in c(), a vector of column indices, or a select helper function. Examples of select helper functions include starts_with(), ends_with(), contains(), matches(), one_of(), num_range(), and everything(). Data collected from the columns will be concatenated together in the order of resolution.

rows

Rows that should contain nanoplots

<row-targeting expression> // default: everything()

With rows we can specify which rows should contain nanoplots in the new column. The default everything() results in all rows in columns being formatted. Alternatively, we can supply a vector of row IDs within c(), a vector of row indices, or a select helper function. Examples of select helper functions include starts_with(), ends_with(), contains(), matches(), one_of(), num_range(), and everything(). We can also use expressions to filter down to the rows we need (e.g., [colname_1] > 100 & [colname_2] < 50).

plot_type

The type of nanoplot to display

singl-kw:[line|bar|boxplot] // default: "line"

Nanoplots can either take the form of a line plot (using "line"), a bar plot (with "bar"), or a box plot ("boxplot"). A line plot, by default, contains layers for a data line, data points, and a data area. Each of these can be deactivated by using nanoplot_options(). With a bar plot, the always visible layer is that of the data bars. Furthermore, a line plot can optionally take in x values through the columns_x_vals argument whereas bar plots and box plots both ignore any data representing the independent variable.

plot_height

The height of the nanoplots

scalar<character> // default: "2em"

The height of the nanoplots. The default here is a sensible value of "2em". By way of comparison, this is a far greater height than the default for icons through fmt_icon() ("1em") and is the same height as images inserted via fmt_image() (also having a "2em" height default).

missing_vals

Treatment of missing values

singl-kw:[gap|marker|zero|remove] // default: "gap"

If missing values are encountered within the input data, there are three strategies available for their handling: (1) "gap" will show data gaps at the sites of missing data, where data lines will have discontinuities and bar plots will have missing bars; (2) "marker" will behave like "gap" but show prominent visual marks at the missing data locations; (3) "zero" will replace NA values with zero values; and (4) "remove" will remove any incoming NA values.

autoscale

Automatically set x- and y-axis scale limits based on data

scalar<logical> // default: FALSE

Using autoscale = TRUE will ensure that the bounds of all nanoplots produced are based on the limits of data combined from all input rows. This will result in a shared scale across all of the nanoplots (for y- and x-axis data), which is useful in those cases where the nanoplot data should be compared across rows.

autohide

Automatically hide the columns/columns_x_vals column(s)

scalar<logical> // default: TRUE

An option to automatically hide any columns specified in columns and also columns_x_vals (if used). Any columns with their state changed to 'hidden' will behave the same as before, they just won't be displayed in the finalized table. Should you want to have these 'input' columns be viewable, set autohide = FALSE.

columns_x_vals

Columns containing values for the optional x variable

<column-targeting expression> // default: NULL (optional)

We can optionally obtain data for the independent variable (i.e., the x-axis data) if specifying columns in columns_x_vals. This is only for the "line" type of plot (set via the plot_type argument). We can supply either be a series of column names provided in c(), a vector of column indices, or a select helper function. Examples of select helper functions include starts_with(), ends_with(), contains(), matches(), one_of(), num_range(), and everything(). Data collected from the columns will be concatenated together in the order of resolution.

reference_line

Add a reference line

scalar<numeric|integer|character> // default: NULL (optional)

A reference line requires a single input to define the line. It could be a static numeric value, applied to all nanoplots generated. Or, the input can be one of the following for generating the line from the underlying data: (1) "mean", (2) "median", (3) "min", (4) "max", (5) "q1", (6) "q3", (7) "first", or (8) "last".

reference_area

Add a reference area

vector<numeric|integer|character>|list // default: NULL (optional)

A reference area requires two inputs to define bottom and top boundaries for a rectangular area. The types of values supplied are the same as those expected for reference_line, which is either a static numeric value or one of the following keywords for the generation of the value: (1) "mean", (2) "median", (3) "min", (4) "max", (5) "q1", (6) "q3", (7) "first", or (8) "last". Input can either be a vector or list with two elements.

expand_x, expand_y

Expand plot scale in the x and y directions

vector<numeric|integer> // default: NULL (optional)

Should you need to have plots expand in the x or y direction, provide one or more values to expand_x or expand_y. Any values provided that are outside of the range of data provided to the plot should result in a scale expansion.

new_col_name

Column name for the new column containing the plots

scalar<character> // default: NULL (optional)

A single column name in quotation marks. Values will be extracted from this column and provided to compatible arguments. If not provided the new column name will be "nanoplots".

new_col_label

Column label for the new column containing the plots

scalar<character> // default: NULL (optional)

A single column label. If not supplied then the column label will inherit from new_col_name (if nothing provided to that argument, the label will be "nanoplots").

before, after

Column used as anchor

<column-targeting expression> // default: NULL (optional)

A single column-resolving expression or column index can be given to either before or after. The column specifies where the new column containing the nanoplots should be positioned among the existing columns in the input data table. While select helper functions such as starts_with() and ends_with() can be used for column targeting, it's recommended that a single column name or index be used. This is to ensure that exactly one column is provided to either of these arguments (otherwise, the function will be stopped). If nothing is provided for either argument then the new column will be placed at the end of the column series.

options

Set options for the nanoplots

obj:<nanoplot_options // default: NULL (optional)

By using the nanoplot_options() helper function here, you can alter the layout and styling of the nanoplots in the new column.

Value

An object of class gt_tbl.

Targeting cells with columns and rows

Targeting of values to insert into the nanoplots is done through columns and additionally by rows (if nothing is provided for rows then entire columns are selected). Aside from declaring column names in c() (with bare column names or names in quotes) we can use also tidyselect-style expressions. This can be as basic as supplying a select helper like starts_with(), or, providing a more complex incantation like

where(~ is.numeric(.x) && max(.x, na.rm = TRUE) > 1E6)

which targets numeric columns that have a maximum value greater than 1,000,000 (excluding any NAs from consideration).

Once the columns are targeted, we may also target the rows within those columns. This can be done in a variety of ways. If a stub is present, then we potentially have row identifiers. Those can be used much like column names in the columns-targeting scenario. We can use simpler tidyselect-style expressions (the select helpers should work well here) and we can use quoted row identifiers in c(). It's also possible to use row indices (e.g., c(3, 5, 6)) though these index values must correspond to the row numbers of the input data (the indices won't necessarily match those of rearranged rows if row groups are present). One more type of expression is possible, an expression that takes column values (can involve any of the available columns in the table) and returns a logical vector.

How to supply data for nanoplots

The input data for nanoplots naturally needs to be numeric and there are two major ways to formulate that data: (1) from single values across many columns, and (2) using text-based value streams. It's pretty easy to rationalize the first, and we may already have wide data in the input data frame anyway (take a look at the illness and towny datasets for examples of this). There's one data value per column so the key thing here is to reference the columns in the correct order. With a select helper, good column naming, and the columns being in the intended order, this is a snap.

The second option is to use text-based value streams. Sometimes you simply don't want or don't need multiple columns and so a single column with all of the data might be more practical. To make this work, you'd need to have a set of numerical values separated by some sort of delimiter (could be a comma, a space, a semicolon, you get the idea). Here's an example with three numbers, written three ways: "3.6 -2.44 1.98", "3.6, -2.44, 1.98", and "3.6;-2.44;1.98". You can include NA values, not a problem, and here's an example of that: "6.232 NA 3.7 0.93". Another form of value stream involves using datetimes in the ISO 8601 form of YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS. These will be internally converted to numeric values (seconds elapsed since "1970-01-01 00:00:00"). An example of a datetime-based value stream is: "2012-06-12 08:24:13, 2012-06-12 10:37:08, 2012-06-12 14:03:24".

Value streams can be pretty big if you want them to be, and you don't have to deal with containing individual values across multiple columns. For the case where you need to provide two sets of values (x and y, for line plots with columns and columns_x_vals), have two equivalently sized value streams in two columns. Value streams can also be concatenated together by referencing columns having their own separate value streams.

Reference line and reference area

Neither a horizontal reference line nor a reference area is present in the default view but these can be added by providing valid input values in the reference_line and reference_area arguments. A reference line can be either be a static numeric value (supply any number to reference_line), or it can be a keyword that computes the reference line y value using the data values for each nanoplot. The following keywords can be used:

  1. "mean": The mean of the data values

  2. "median": Median of data values

  3. "min": Minimum value in set of data values

  4. "max": The maximum value

  5. "q1": The first, or lower, quartile of the data values

  6. "q3": The third quartile, otherwise known as the upper quartile

  7. "first": The first data value

  8. "last": The last data value

The reference area accepts two inputs, and this can be two of the above keywords, a keyword and a static numeric value, or two numeric values.

Examples

Let's make some nanoplots with the illness dataset. The columns beginning with 'day' all contain ordered measurement values, comprising seven individual daily results. Using cols_nanoplot() we create a new column to hold the nanoplots (with new_col_name = "nanoplots"), referencing the columns containing the data (with columns = starts_with("day")). It's also possible to define a column label here using the new_col_label argument.

illness |>
  dplyr::slice_head(n = 10) |>
  gt(rowname_col = "test") |>
  tab_header("Partial summary of daily tests performed on YF patient") |>
  tab_stubhead(label = md("**Test**")) |>
  cols_hide(columns = starts_with("norm")) |>
  fmt_units(columns = units) |>
  cols_nanoplot(
    columns = starts_with("day"),
    new_col_name = "nanoplots",
    new_col_label = md("*Progression*")
  ) |>
  cols_align(align = "center", columns = nanoplots) |>
  cols_merge(columns = c(test, units), pattern = "{1} ({2})") |>
  tab_footnote(
    footnote = "Measurements from Day 3 through to Day 8.",
    locations = cells_column_labels(columns = nanoplots)
  )

This image of a table was generated from the first code example in the `cols_nanoplot()` help file.

The previous table showed us some line-based nanoplots. We can also make very small bar plots with cols_nanoplot(). Let's take the pizzaplace dataset and make a small summary table showing daily pizza sales by type (there are four types). This will be limited to the first ten days of pizza sales in 2015, so, there will be ten rows in total. We can use plot_type = "bar" to make bar plots from the daily sales counts in the chicken, classic, supreme, and veggie columns. Because we know there will always be four bars (one for each type of pizza) we can be a little creative and apply colors to each of the bars through use of the data_bar_fill_color argument in nanoplot_options().

pizzaplace |>
  dplyr::select(type, date) |>
  dplyr::group_by(date, type) |>
  dplyr::summarize(sold = dplyr::n(), .groups = "drop") |>
  tidyr::pivot_wider(names_from = type, values_from = sold) |>
  dplyr::slice_head(n = 10) |>
  gt(rowname_col = "date") |>
  tab_header(
    title = md("First Ten Days of Pizza Sales in 2015")
  ) |>
  cols_nanoplot(
    columns = c(chicken, classic, supreme, veggie),
    plot_type = "bar",
    autohide = FALSE,
    new_col_name = "pizzas_sold",
    new_col_label = "Sales by Type",
    options = nanoplot_options(
      show_data_line = FALSE,
      show_data_area = FALSE,
      data_bar_stroke_color = "transparent",
      data_bar_fill_color = c("brown", "gold", "purple", "green")
    )
  ) |>
  cols_width(pizzas_sold ~ px(150)) |>
  cols_align(columns = -date, align = "center") |>
  fmt_date(columns = date, date_style = "yMMMEd") |>
  opt_all_caps()

This image of a table was generated from the second code example in the `cols_nanoplot()` help file.

Now we'll make another table that contains two columns of nanoplots. Starting from the towny dataset, we first reduce it down to a subset of columns and rows. All of the columns related to either population or density will be used as input data for the two nanoplots. Both nanoplots will use a reference line that is generated from the median of the input data. And by naming the new nanoplot-laden columns in a similar manner as the input data columns, we can take advantage of select helpers (e.g., when using tab_spanner()). Many of the input data columns are now redundant because of the plots, so we'll elect to hide most of those with cols_hide().

towny |>
  dplyr::select(name, starts_with("population"), starts_with("density")) |>
  dplyr::filter(population_2021 > 200000) |>
  dplyr::arrange(desc(population_2021)) |>
  gt() |>
  fmt_integer(columns = starts_with("population")) |>
  fmt_number(columns = starts_with("density"), decimals = 1) |>
  cols_nanoplot(
    columns = starts_with("population"),
    reference_line = "median",
    autohide = FALSE,
    new_col_name = "population_plot",
    new_col_label = md("*Change*")
  ) |>
  cols_nanoplot(
    columns = starts_with("density"),
    plot_type = "bar",
    autohide = FALSE,
    new_col_name = "density_plot",
    new_col_label = md("*Change*")
  ) |>
  cols_hide(columns = matches("2001|2006|2011|2016")) |>
  tab_spanner(
    label = "Population",
    columns = starts_with("population")
  ) |>
  tab_spanner(
    label = "Density ({{*persons* km^-2}})",
    columns = starts_with("density")
  ) |>
  cols_label_with(
    columns = -matches("plot"),
    fn = function(x) gsub("\\D+", "", x)
  ) |>
  cols_align(align = "center", columns = matches("plot")) |>
  cols_width(
    name ~ px(140),
    everything() ~ px(100)
  ) |>
  opt_horizontal_padding(scale = 2)

This image of a table was generated from the third code example in the `cols_nanoplot()` help file.

The sza dataset can, with just some use of dplyr and tidyr, give us a wide table full of nanoplottable values. We'll transform the solar zenith angles to solar altitude angles and create a column of nanoplots using the newly calculated values. There are a few NA values during periods where the sun hasn't risen (usually before 06:30 in the winter months) and those values will be replaced with 0 using missing_vals = "zero". We'll also elect to create bar plots using the plot_type = "bar" option. The height of the plots will be bumped up to "2.5em" from the default of "2em". Finally, we will use nanoplot_options() to modify the coloring of the data bars.

sza |>
  dplyr::filter(latitude == 20 & tst <= "1200") |>
  dplyr::select(-latitude) |>
  dplyr::filter(!is.na(sza)) |>
  dplyr::mutate(saa = 90 - sza) |>
  dplyr::select(-sza) |>
  tidyr::pivot_wider(
    names_from = tst,
    values_from = saa,
    names_sort = TRUE
  ) |>
  gt(rowname_col = "month") |>
  tab_header(
    title = "Solar Altitude Angles",
    subtitle = "Average values every half hour from 05:30 to 12:00"
  ) |>
  cols_nanoplot(
    columns = matches("0"),
    plot_type = "bar",
    missing_vals = "zero",
    new_col_name = "saa",
    plot_height = "2.5em",
    options = nanoplot_options(
      data_bar_stroke_color = "GoldenRod",
      data_bar_fill_color = "DarkOrange"
    )
  ) |>
  tab_options(
    table.width = px(400),
    column_labels.hidden = TRUE
  ) |>
  cols_align(
    align = "center",
    columns = everything()
  ) |>
  tab_source_note(
    source_note = "The solar altitude angle is the complement to
    the solar zenith angle. TMYK."
  )

This image of a table was generated from the fourth code example in the `cols_nanoplot()` help file.

You can use number and time streams as data for nanoplots. Let's demonstrate how we can make use of them with some creative transformation of the pizzaplace dataset. A value stream is really a string with delimited numeric values, like this: "7.24,84.2,14". A value stream can also contain dates and/or datetimes, and here's an example of that: "2020-06-02 13:05:13,2020-06-02 14:24:05,2020-06-02 18:51:37". Having data in this form can often be more convenient since different nanoplots might have varying amounts of data (and holding different amounts of data in a fixed number of columns is cumbersome). There are date and time columns in this dataset and we'll use that to get x values denoting high-resolution time instants: the second of the day that a pizza was sold (this is true pizza analytics). We also have the sell price for a pizza, and that'll serve as the y values. The pizzas belong to four different groups (in the type column) and we'll group by that and create value streams with paste(..., collapse = ",") inside the dplyr::summarize() call. With two value streams in each row (having the same number of values) we can now make a gt table with nanoplots.

pizzaplace |>
  dplyr::filter(date == "2015-01-01") |>
  dplyr::mutate(date_time = paste(date, time)) |>
  dplyr::select(type, date_time, price) |>
  dplyr::group_by(type) |>
  dplyr::summarize(
    date_time = paste(date_time, collapse = ","),
    sold = paste(price, collapse = ",")
  ) |>
  gt(rowname_col = "type") |>
  tab_header(
    title = md("Pizzas sold on **January 1, 2015**"),
    subtitle = "Between the opening hours of 11:30 to 22:30"
  ) |>
  cols_nanoplot(
    columns = sold,
    columns_x_vals = date_time,
    expand_x = c("2015-01-01 11:30", "2015-01-01 22:30"),
    reference_line = "median",
    new_col_name = "pizzas_sold",
    new_col_label = "Pizzas Sold",
    options = nanoplot_options(
      show_data_line = FALSE,
      show_data_area = FALSE,
      currency = "USD"
    )
  ) |>
  cols_width(pizzas_sold ~ px(200)) |>
  cols_align(columns = pizzas_sold, align = "center") |>
  opt_all_caps()

This image of a table was generated from the fifth code example in the `cols_nanoplot()` help file.

Notice that the columns containing the value streams are hid due to the default argument autohide = TRUE because, while useful, they don't need to be displayed to anybody viewing a table. Since we have a lot of data points and a connecting line is not as valuable here, we also set show_data_line = FALSE in nanoplot_options(). It's more interesting to see the clusters of the differently priced pizzas over the entire day. Specifying a currency in nanoplot_options() is a nice touch since the y values are sale prices in U.S. Dollars (hovering over data points gives correctly formatted values). Finally, having a reference line based on the median gives pretty useful information. Seems like customers preferred getting the "chicken"-type pizzas in large size!

Box plots can be generated, and we just need to use plot_type = "boxplot" to make that type of nanoplot. Using a small portion of the pizzaplace dataset, we will create a simple table that displays a box plot of pizza sales for a selection of days. By converting the string-time 24-hour-clock time values to the number of seconds elapsed in a day, we get continuous values that can be incorporated into each box plot. And, by supplying a function to the y_val_fmt_fn argument within nanoplot_options(), we can transform the integer seconds values back to clock times for display on hover.

pizzaplace |>
  dplyr::filter(date <= "2015-01-14") |>
  dplyr::mutate(time = as.numeric(hms::as_hms(time))) |>
  dplyr::summarize(time = paste(time, collapse = ","), .by = date) |>
  dplyr::mutate(is_weekend = lubridate::wday(date) %in% 6:7) |>
  gt() |>
  tab_header(title = "Pizza Sales in Early January 2015") |>
  fmt_date(columns = date, date_style = 2) |>
  cols_nanoplot(
    columns = time,
    plot_type = "boxplot",
    options = nanoplot_options(y_val_fmt_fn = function(x) hms::as_hms(x))
  ) |>
  cols_hide(columns = is_weekend) |>
  cols_width(everything() ~ px(250)) |>
  cols_align(align = "center", columns = nanoplots) |>
  cols_align(align = "left", columns = date) |>
  tab_style(
    style = cell_borders(
      sides = "left", color = "gray"),
    locations = cells_body(columns = nanoplots)
  ) |>
  tab_style_body(
    style = cell_fill(color = "#E5FEFE"),
    values = TRUE,
    targets = "row"
  ) |>
  tab_options(column_labels.hidden = TRUE)

This image of a table was generated from the sixth code example in the `cols_nanoplot()` help file.

Function ID

5-8

Function Introduced

v0.10.0 (October 7, 2023)